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The demand for energy storage is increasing massively due to the electrification of transport and the expansion of renewable energies. Current battery technologies cannot satisfy this growing demand as they are difficult to recycle, as the necessary raw materials are mined under precarious conditions, and as the energy density is insufficient. Metal–air batteries offer a high energy density as there is only one active mass inside the cell and the cathodic reaction uses the ambient air. Various metals can be used, but zinc is very promising due to its disposability and non-toxic behavior, and as operation as a secondary cell is possible. Typical characteristics of zinc–air batteries are flat charge and discharge curves. On the one hand, this is an advantage for the subsequent power electronics, which can be optimized for smaller and constant voltage ranges. On the other hand, the state determination of the system becomes more complex, as the voltage level is not sufficient to determine the state of the battery. In this context, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a promising candidate as the resulting impedance spectra depend on the state of charge, working point, state of aging, and temperature. Previous approaches require a fixed operating state of the cell while impedance measurements are being performed. In this publication, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is therefore combined with various machine learning techniques to also determine successfully the state of charge during charging of the cell at non-fixed charging currents.
Keywords:
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; artificial neural networks; support vector regression; zinc-air battery; state estimation; state of charge

Metal air batteries provide a high energy density as the ca-thodic reaction uses the surrounding air. Different metals can be usedbut zinc is very promising due to its disposability and nontoxic behav-ior. State estimation is quite complicated as the voltage characteristicof the battery is rather flat. Especially estimating the state of chargeis important as a secondary electrolysis process during overcharging canlead to an unsafe state. Another technique for state estimation is theelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, this paper describesthe process of setup and measuring a time series of impedance spectraat known states of charge. Then these spectra are used to derive anequivalent circuit. Finally the development of the circuit’s parameter areanalyzed to extract most important parameters.

The main task of battery management systems is to keep the working area of the battery in a safe state. Estimation of the state of charge and the state of health is therefore essential. The traditional way uses the voltage level of a battery to determine those values. Modern metal air batteries provide a flat voltage characteristic which necessitates new approaches. One promising technique is the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which measures the AC resistance for a set of different frequencies. Previous approaches match the measured impedances with a nonlinear equivalent circuit, which needs a lot of time to solve a nonlinear least-squares problem. This paper combines the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with neural networks to speed up the state estimation using the example of zinc air batteries. Moreover, these networks are trained with different subsets of the spectra as input data in order to determine the required number of frequencies.

Oxygen consumption of zinc-air batteries and theirperformance at low oxygen concentration levels
(2018)

Already existing primary Zinc-air batteries providea high energy density. Due to new secondary cells, its tech-nology can become an alternative for energy storage. Sincethese applications require a big amount of storable energy, theoxygen consumption has to be taken into account. This articledetermines the oxygen consumption of zinc-air batteries duringdischarging. Furthermore the performance of zinc-air batteries atlow oxygen concentrations is analyzed. Both aspects are validatedby practical experiments.

State of Charge estimation of zinc air batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
(2018)

When developing new battery technologies, fundamental research means assembling new batteries by hand since a production line is not worthwhile for building and testing individual cells. This causes high production tolerances to occur because manual manufacturing is not as precise as machine-made. When putting these prototypes into operation, problems can arise due to the varying parameters. One of the most important exercise is finding a criterion of a full battery. This can be challenging when parameters like the capacity or the end of charge voltage are not precisely known due to the tolerances. Furthermore, new battery types do not necessarily rely on the same stopping criteria. For example zinc-air secondary batteries do not offer an end of charging voltage. Its charging current is not going to decrease when the battery is full and the charging voltage is held at a fixed value. But instead of de-oxidising zinc oxide, hydrogen is produced. In the majority of cases overcharging should be avoided as it harms the battery. Another even more dangerous consequence is the possibility of an explosion. Especially lithium based batteries are known for their need of compatible ambient and charging parameters. This paper proposes a new criterion for detecting the end of charge that is based on the rate of change of electrochemical impedance spectra of the examined batteries. Device parameter fluctuations influence every measurement. Therefore, using the rate of change offers the possibility to not depend on these fluctuations.

Die wachsenden Anteile fluktuierender regenerativer Energien in der Energieversorgung (bis 2020 sollen 30 % und 2050 sogar So % des Stroms aus regenerativen Energiequellen stammen) sowie die Steigerung der Elektromobilität machen deutlich: Das Thema der Zwischenspeicherung elektrischer Energie ist von höchster gesellschaftlicher Relevanz und verlangt zwingend nach einer Lösung. Neue Technologien, die umweltfreundlich, sicher, leistungsfähig und bezahlbar zugleich sind, müssen deshalb entwickelt werden.

The subject of this paper is the analysis of various switching electronics for batteries with separate electrodes for charging and discharging. The aim is to find a switching method that is energy-efficient on the one hand, but also economically viable on the other. Both relays and MOSFETs are suitable for switching between the electrodes. Both variants have advantages and disadvantages. The results show that a solution with MOSFETs is generally more energy-efficient, but requires a large number of cycles to be economically viable compared to the relay.